Jun. 24, 2021
In a study on benzaldehyde from bitter almond oil, Ruff et al. (2000) showed that the natural molecule could easily be distinguished from its synthetic counterpart by using gas chromatography-pyrolysis-IRMS (GC-P-IRMS). The δ2H values of benzaldehyde from natural sources (cassia, bitter almond oil, kernels, fruits, or leaves) ranged from − 83‰ to − 189‰, whereas the benzaldehyde synthesized from toluene ranged from + 420‰ to + 668‰. More problematic was benzaldehyde synthesized from benzal chloride, which showed values ranging from − 78‰ to − 85‰. Semisynthetic sources produced from cinnamic aldehyde (from cassia oil) also felled in the range of natural benzaldehyde (δ2H = − 136‰). Next, the benzaldehyde supplier will share the following content with you.
As the production of natural vanilla beans does not cover the global demand of food manufacturers for vanilla, there is widespread use of synthetic vanilla aroma. Fully synthetic vanilla shows isotope ratios that fall relatively far away from the natural molecule that makes their identification easy. However, new sources have been developed by semisynthesis from natural precursors, for example, lignin from the paper industry, eugenol from cloves, and ferulic acid from rice bran. In order to distinguish the natural vanillin from its semisynthetic equivalents, vanilla was isolated and converted into guaiacol on which δ13C and δ18O enrichments were determined and compared with guaiacol from semisynthetic and synthetic sources (Bensaid et al., 2002).
Among the aldehydes, benzaldehyde (almond aroma) and vanillin are the most important and widely used by the food industry. Benzaldehyde is used in aroma compositions due to its bitter almond odor and is applied as a starting material for a large number of aliphatic fragrance and flavor materials. It possesses a sweet, floral, and spice-like odor (Burdock and Fenaroli 2010). It naturally occurs in many products such as bitter almonds, peach, apricot kernel, cheeses, and black tea (Surburg and Panten 2006). This compound can be obtained in natural form, by extraction and distillation from botanical sources, or synthesized from benzyl chloride.
Natural benzaldehyde, generally extracted from fruit kernels such as apricots, is used as an ingredient in cherry and other natural fruit flavors and has a market of ~20 tons per year and a price of approximately EUR 240 per kg. Benzaldehyde obtained from natural cinnamaldehyde can be purchased for EUR 100 per kg with an estimated market of more than 100 tons per year (Feron and Waché 2006). The screening of several white-rot fungi has shown that numerous species are able to synthesize benzaldehyde through de novo, such as Pleurotus sapidus, Polyporus sp. and others (Lomascolo et al. 1999). Berger et al. (1987) studied the formation of a methoxy benzaldehyde in Ischnoderma benzoicum.
Methylbutyric acid can be naturally found in the composition of several oils, such as peppermint and spearmint, and fruits (e.g. apricot, apple, grapes, papaya, and pineapple). This acid has an aroma threshold between 10 to 60 ppb, with notes of fermented pineapple fruity and lingonberry (Burdock and Fenaroli 2010). It was reported that Acetobacter strains are able to synthesize methyl butyric acid. Besides its industrial relevance as a flavor, this acid can be a valuable precursor of common flavor esters (Vandamme and Soetart 2002).