Sep. 29, 2021
Phenolic acids are the main components of berries. Phenolic acids are represented by cinnamic acid and benzoic acid derivatives. Benzoic acid derivatives include p-hydroxybenzoic acid, salicylic acid, gallic acid, and ellagic acid. Common cinnamic acid derivatives include p-coumaric acid, caffeic acid, and ferulic acid. Bitterberries are rich in hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives represented by chlorogenic acid and neochlorogenic acid. Ellagic acid and its conjugates form the red, mostly phenolic raspberry.
The main phenolic acids in strawberries are p-hydroxybenzoic acid and p-coumaric acid. Among the berries, raspberries and strawberries have the highest ellagic tannins content. Hydroxybenzoic acid is the most abundant phenolic acid in cranberries, followed by hydroxycinnamic acid. Cranberries and blueberries are particularly rich in ferulic acid, while lingonberries contain p-coumaric and ferulic acids. The phenolic acids in blackberries are mainly hydroxycinnamic acid and hydroxybenzoic acid, with phenolic acid levels ranging from 7 to 64 mg 100 g - 1 firmware.
Phenolic compounds form a large group of chemosensory substances, including simple benzoic and cinnamic acid derivatives, quinones, and flavonoids. Benzoic and cinnamic acid CAS 140-10-3 derivatives are the most common chemosensory substances of plant origin. Some examples of these substances are benzoic acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, salicylic acid, gallic acid, coumaric acid, butyric acid, trans-cinnamic acid, p-coumaric acid, caffeic acid, ferulic acid, and chlorogenic acid. These simple phenolics are thought to affect forest ecosystems, succession, and autotoxicity.
Glycosides of these phenolic compounds also exhibit plant growth inhibitory effects; for example, two glycosides cis-cinnamic acid, 1- ö -cis-cinnamic-β- d -glucopyranose (CG) and 6- ö -(4'-hydroxy-2'-methylenebutanoyl)-1- O-cis -cinnamoyl-β- d-glucopyranose (BG), isolated from the leaves of Spiraea thunbergii Sieb.
Although these compounds were abundant in plant tissues, leaf leachates, root secretions, and plant apoplasts, their inhibitory activity on seed germination and seedling growth was rather weak. Furthermore, their concentrations in soil may not be sufficient to show inhibitory effects, as they are lost through rapid degradation, strong binding to humic acids, and adsorption to soil particles. These phenolics have a variety of biological activities; for example, salicylic acid is an inducer of systemic acquired resistance (SAR) against pathogen attack.
Benzyl alcohol may be used as a preservative in cosmetics and personal care products marketed in the EU at a maximum concentration of 1%. Benzoic acid and its salts and esters are also permitted as preservatives in cosmetic and personal care products at a maximum concentration (expressed as acid) of 2.5% in douche products (except oral care products), 1.7% in oral care, and 0.5% in product left.
Benzyl alcohol and benzyl benzoate are also listed in Annex III of the EU Cosmetics Directive. When benzyl alcohol or benzyl benzoate is used as a flavoring ingredient, Annex III requires the labeling of products with these flavoring ingredients at greater than 0.001% in leave-on products and greater than 0.01% in rinse-off products.
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